Skin structure

Skin is the bound between us and the environment. Skin protect our body from unfavourable conditions of outside world. If you view it through microscope you will see many small elements that work together, like team. These elements are arranged in complicated system that work only for us. So we have to care about our skin.

The skin has two main layers - epidermis and dermis. Below them is our subcutaneous fat.

Epidermis - The top layer is called the epidermis - the part of the skin we see. Look at your hands for a minute. Although you can not see everything that is happening now epidermis doing a lot of work. At its base is being formed new cells. When cells are ready, they begin to move on top of epidermis. It takes about two weeks or even a month. Older cells are replaced by new. Older cells just die and appear on the surface of our skin. What you see in the arms and on your body, actually these are dead cells.

Dead cells - they are tough and strong, their role is to cover and protect. They are on the surface for a short time. Although we can not see what is happening, every minute of the day we lose about 30 to 40,000 dead skin cells from the skin surface. We can lose about 4 kg cells every day! Epidermis continually produce new cells that appear to the surface and replace old ones. Most of the cells in the epidermis (95%) work for the new skin cells. What happens to the other 5%? They produce a substance called melanin. Melanin gives skin color. If our skin is darker, the more melanin we have. When you go in the sun, the cells produce more melanin to protect us from burning ultraviolet rays of the sun.
 Therefore, our skin becomes tan, if you spend more time in the sun. Although melanin is important, but it can't give us total protection. Our clothes can protect us. If you protect your skin NOW, you will protect it of different diseases (rashes, inflammations and skin cancer).

Dermis - we can not see it because it is hidden under the epidermis. Dermis contains nerve endings, blood vessels, sebaceous glands and sweat glands. Also contains collagen and elastin. By nerve endings in this layer you feel things when touch them. They work with brain and nervous system, so that the brain receives messages about what you touch. Hard or soft, gentle or harsh. Sometimes we can touch danger things, so nerves are working with muscles to protect you from burning or pricking. Nerves react in a moment. They immediately send message to the brain, which immediately sends a command to muscles to withdraw the body.

There are very thin blood vessels in the dermis. They maintain healthy skin, delivering its oxygen, nutrients we need and discard unnecessary. These vessels are not visible to children, but if you looked at the skin of older people will see them. When the aging dermis, becomes thinner and easier to see through it.

 Dermis is home to many sebaceous glands that produce sebum always. Sebum is the natural oil of the skin. Shows the surface of the epidermis to keep skin oily and protects it. It also makes our skin waterproof.

 There are sweat glands in the epidermis. We sweat all the time but we don't feel it. Released in sweat pores - tiny holes in the skin. When sebum meet with sweat formed protective layer which is slightly sticky. The easiest way to see this layer is to try to raise a pin with a finger. Then wash your hands with soap and water and try to raise again the pin. It's not that easy because sticky layer is gone. It will appear soon when sebum (natural oil) and sweat glands make more sticky substance.

 The third layer is subcutaneous fat. Made primarily of fat, it helps your body to stay warm and when you hit something, took the blow. Subcutaneous layer of the skin helps to retain all the tissues beneath it.

 We have a hair follicle and throughout the entire body except the lips, hands and feet. We have more of them in some places over others. There are more than 100,000 follicles on your head. Hair follicles rely on the sebaceous glands to shine. In each follicle dermis is associated with sebaceous glands, which emit sebum (natural oiling) in the hair. That cover it with fat, giving it a slight shine and protection of the water.

 Temperature - our skin can make us warm or cold. Blood vessels, sweat glands and hair coordinate and keep our body to maintain the correct temperature. If you walk in the heat, it may overheat. If you are outside when it's cold, our inner temperature may fall. In both cases, the skin helps. Our body is quite clever. Knows how to keep temperature and keep our cells healthy. The skin can respond to messages sent from the hypothalamus (the internal thermometer of brain). If running on a hot day, the blood vessels take a signal from the hypothalamus to release heat from the body. They do this by carrying warm blood to the skin surface. That is the reason why we get red when running. Sweat glands cooling our body, releasing heat from our body in the air. The more we warm, the more sweat release. Once the sweat evaporates, body becomes cooler.
 What happens when skiing? When we cold, blood vessels keep the body from cooling through narrow as possible and keep warm blood away from the skin surface and then skin bristle. This is "pilomotor reflex". This reflex is controlled by small thin muscles called erector pili. These muscles pulling your hairs and they erect.

Now you know that skin is not like other organs. Our obligation is to clean it and keep it.

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